BIM ‘필요불가결’공감하지만…건설업계 우려 목소리도 -건설경제신문 20151130…

출처 : 건설경제신문 : http://www.cnews.co.kr/uhtml/index.jsp

발주처와 발주지침, 목적·범위 등 불분명  

예고한 시기가 드디어 다가왔다. 앞으로 남은 기간은 고작 한 달이다. 조달청은 약속대로 내년부터 맞춤형서비스로 집행하는 모든 공사에 ‘건설정보모델링(BIMㆍBuilding Information Modeling)’ 설계를 적용, 발주할 계획이라고 지난 19일 밝혔다.

2016년부터 의무 적용의 예고장을 날린 조달청은 지난 2009년 이후 21건(4조354억원)의 맞춤형서비스 사업에 BIM 설계를 적용해 발주했다. 공도 있었지만 과도 있었다. 아직도 건설업계에서는 BIM 도입이 시기상조라는 의견이 지배적이다.

하지만 2016년 조달청이 BIM을 적용할 맞춤형서비스 사업의 규모는 2조1000억원(50여건)으로 추정되는 상황이다. 이미 시장의 문이 열린 셈이다.

공사규모별로 볼 때 총 공사비 300억원 미만의 중·소규모 공사는 계획설계 또는 중간설계 수준의 최소화된 BIM 수준을 요구하고, 300억원 이상 공사는 실시설계 수준의 BIM, 500억원 이상 공사는 실시설계 BIM에 더해 사업특성에 따른 추가적인 건설 정보 입력을 요구할 계획이다.

이에 대비해 조달청은 BIM 설계 전면 적용의 실효성을 확보하기 위해 맞춤형서비스 BIM 전담팀 구성과 ‘BIM 적용 기본지침 가이드라인’ 마련을 약속한 상태다.

차질 없이 잘 진행될 수 있을까. 어쩌면 이 같은 조달청의 청사진은 이미 2차원적인 발상일 수도 있다. 미국 등 선진국의 BIM은 아우디와 지멘스 같은 대형 기업들의 지원을 받으며 단순 건축물 건설을 넘어서 스마트 시티 사업으로 나아가는 가운데 조달청이 설명하는 BIM 기대효과는 유행에 뒤진 초보적 단계로 보일 지경이다. <건설경제>가 한 달 앞으로 다가온 BIM 의무발주 시대를 맞이해 그동안 시장에서 BIM의 평가와 현재 건설사들의 준비 태세, 미국 선진 회사들의 BIM을 이용하는 자세를 추적했다.

업계 “발주처가 BIM을 통해 구현하려는 목적이 불분명한 게 문제”

 업계에서 BIM이 본격 적용된 최초 사례로 꼽는 사업은 지난 2009년 말의 용인시민체육공원 턴키 사업이다.

용인시민체육공원 프로젝트는 기획단계부터 설계, 시공, 유지보수 등 모든 단계와 토목, 건축, 구조, 설비, 조경 등 전 공종에 BIM을 적용토록 규정한 사업이었다.

하지만 당시만 해도 발주자의 BIM 도입목적이 구체적이지 않았다. 도입 목적보다는 도입했다는 의의에 방점을 찍었던 시점이었다.

문제는 당시의 BIM 적용 입찰 안내서가 지금까지 거의 비슷하게 이어지고 있다는 점이다.

BIM 사업 수행 경험이 있는 대형 시공사 관계자는 “국내에 발주된 BIM 프로젝트의 입찰안내서를 보면 대략적으로 공통된 문제점이 있는데, 일단 발주처와 발주지침의 목적과 범위 등이 불명확하다는 점”이라며 “BIM을 통해 공사비를 줄이려는 것인지, 공기를 단축하려는 것인지, 아니면 건물의 유지관리의 효율성을 높이려는 것인지 발주처의 의지가 빈약하다 보니 입찰 안내서에서 BIM 적용 수준을 제시하는 것 자체가 불분명하고, 시공사에 넘기는 BIM 추출 설계도서의 납품 기준도 매우 미흡하다”고 지적했다.

건설사업 입낙찰제도 개선 때마다 거론되는 발주자의 전문성 및 자질 문제가 다시 한 번 도마 위에 오르는 셈이다.

이 때문에 업계에서는 BIM이 의무화되면 오히려 업역 간 다툼이 늘어날 소지도 있다고 지적한다.

한 대형 설계사무소 관계자는 “BIM을 제대로 구현하는 설계사는 많지 않다. 이 가운데 성과 공유제로 발주방식이 전환되면 공과 과를 따지는 가운데 설계사에 일방적인 책임을 묻는 시공사들이 늘어날 수도 있다”고 우려했다.

설계업계의 우려대로 BIM 적용에 많은 업체들이 부담스러워하는 것은 사실이다.

실제로 설계사와 엔지니어링사, 시공사 모두 BIM에 대한 준비가 충분하지 못한 상황이다. 여태까지 사업 발주가 BIM에 대한 뚜렷한 목적 없이 진행된 탓에 시공사에서는 BIM 기술 적용이 일부 몇 개 선도적 기업을 제외하고는 사업 수주의 수단으로 전락한 경우가 많다.

또 설계사의 경우에는 BIM을 통해 건축물의 전체 생애주기에 대한 초안을 잡는다는 개념보다는 자신들의 디자인을 표현하는 도구로 여기는 분위기가 지배적이고, 엔지니어링사는 말할 것도 없이 BIM 자체를 어색하게 여긴다.

소수의 건축구조기술사사무소 및 대기업 그룹사의 일원으로 BIM 물량을 확보한 경험이 있는 업체나 일정 수준 이상의 자신감을 보이는 정도지만, 이것도 시장에서 절대적 경쟁력을 확보할 만한 수준은 아니라는 게 업계 전문가들의 평가다.

이 때문에 업계 관계자들은 2016년부터 적용되는 조달청이 연구용역을 통해 도출한 BIM 입찰 안내서 등 발주체계 개선방안이 무엇보다 중요하다고 강조한다.

대형 시공사의 BIM 업무 담당자는 “솔직히 해외의 사례를 보면 BIM은 이미 로우테크에서 하이테크 분야까지 다양하게 적용되며 이미 건설의 한계를 넓히는데 활용되고 있는 가운데 조달청 지침은 초보적 단계”라며 “국내 BIM 시장의 활성화와 효과적인 활용을 위해서는 여태까지의 공공발주에서 반복한 시행착오를 바탕으로 현실적인 BIM 지침을 마련하는 것이 가장 중요하다. 시장논리에 따른 발주기관의 유연한 대처가 필수적”이라고 지적했다.

최지희기자 jh606@

 

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