조달청 BIM 건설생산성 높인다-정책브리핑

‘조달청 BIM’, 건설생산성 높인다
김익수 조달청 시설사업기획과장

출처 : 정책브리핑

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스탠포드대학교 폴 타이콜(Paul Teicholz) 석좌교수의 연구에 의하면 미국에서 1960년대 이후 40년 동안 비농업 산업의 노동 생산성은 2배 이상 증가했다. 반면 건설산업의 노동생산성은 10% 감소한 것으로 드러났다. 여러 가지 이유가 있겠지만, 근본적으로는 건설산업의 패러다임이 변하지 않았기 때문일 것이다. 40년 전과 현재를 비교하면 건축 설계도면을 그리는 도구가 연필에서 컴퓨터로 변하였을 뿐, 근본적인 차이가 없다. 이러한 문제점을 극복하기 위한 해법으로 폴 타이콜 교수는 3차원 설계와 IT의 활용을 제시했다.

재규어 자동차의 전 회장 존 이건(John Egan)은 ‘건설을 다시 생각하기(Rethinking Construction)’ 라는 보고서에서 건설산업이 제조업에 비하여 낙후된 이유를 분석했다. 보고서에서 건설산업은 설계 및 시공오류가 많아 그 손실이 크고 교육 및 연구개발에 대한 투자가 미미한 것이 문제점이라고 지적했다. 이 보고서가 세계 건설산업에 큰 영향을 미쳐 건설 생산성을 향상시키기 위한 기술로써 3차원 설계와 IT를 접목한 BIM을 도입하는 계기가 되었다.

BIM(Building Information Modeling)은 가상공간에 시설물의 모든 정보를 입력하여 3차원으로 건설하는 과정이다. 건설과정에서 BIM 모델을 활용하면 3차원 시각화가 가능하여 참여자의 의사소통이 쉬워지고, 건물을 짓고 사용하며 관리하는 과정을 미리 시뮬레이션 할 수 있다. 또한 BIM은 건물의 정보를 나누어 2차원으로 표현하는 기존 방식과는 다른 정보를 통합하는 기술로써 단순한 건설도구의 변화가 아니라 건설산업 패러다임의 변화이다.

스탠포드대학교 폴 타이콜(Paul Teicholz) 석좌교수의 연구에 의하면 미국에서 1960년대 이후 40년 동안 비농업 산업의 노동 생산성은 2배 이상 증가했다. 반면 건설산업의 노동생산성은 10% 감소한 것으로 드러났다. 여러 가지 이유가 있겠지만, 근본적으로는 건설산업의 패러다임이 변하지 않았기 때문일 것이다. 40년 전과 현재를 비교하면 건축 설계도면을 그리는 도구가 연필에서 컴퓨터로 변하였을 뿐, 근본적인 차이가 없다. 이러한 문제점을 극복하기 위한 해법으로 폴 타이콜 교수는 3차원 설계와 IT의 활용을 제시했다.

재규어 자동차의 전 회장 존 이건(John Egan)은 ‘건설을 다시 생각하기(Rethinking Construction)’ 라는 보고서에서 건설산업이 제조업에 비하여 낙후된 이유를 분석했다. 보고서에서 건설산업은 설계 및 시공오류가 많아 그 손실이 크고 교육 및 연구개발에 대한 투자가 미미한 것이 문제점이라고 지적했다. 이 보고서가 세계 건설산업에 큰 영향을 미쳐 건설 생산성을 향상시키기 위한 기술로써 3차원 설계와 IT를 접목한 BIM을 도입하는 계기가 되었다.

BIM(Building Information Modeling)은 가상공간에 시설물의 모든 정보를 입력하여 3차원으로 건설하는 과정이다. 건설과정에서 BIM 모델을 활용하면 3차원 시각화가 가능하여 참여자의 의사소통이 쉬워지고, 건물을 짓고 사용하며 관리하는 과정을 미리 시뮬레이션 할 수 있다. 또한 BIM은 건물의 정보를 나누어 2차원으로 표현하는 기존 방식과는 다른 정보를 통합하는 기술로써 단순한 건설도구의 변화가 아니라 건설산업 패러다임의 변화이다.

우리나라는 2008년 빌딩스마트협회 주관으로 최초의 BIM 포럼이 개최되었고, 2009년에는 조달청이 BIM을 적용하여 ‘용인시민체육공원 조성사업’을 발주하였다. 이때를 기준으로 국내에서 BIM이 도입된 지 7~8년이 지났지만 BIM 도입 확산 속도는 예상보다 느리다. 이는 BIM 비용 대비 효과가 크지 않다는 인식 탓이다. 그 원인은 우리나라의 BIM 활용기반과 인프라가 선진국에 비하여 부족하기 때문일 것이다.

조달청의 경우, 2013년부터 공사비 500억 원 이상 맞춤형서비스 사업에 BIM 적용을 의무화하고 있고 2016년부터 맞춤형서비스 모든 사업으로 확대할 예정이다. 현재까지 21건의 사업에 BIM을 적용함으로써 설계사무소와 건설사에게 BIM에 대한 관심을 불러일으켰다. 그 결과 공공 건축물의 설계품질이 강화되고 사전 시공성 검토가 가능하여 설계오류가 상당부분 감소됐다. 그 과정에서 보여주기식 BIM 적용이 있었던 것도 사실이다. 내년부터 맞춤형서비스에 BIM 전면 적용을 앞두고 있는 시점에서 BIM 적용의 장점을 극대화하고 단점을 보완하기 위해 조달청은 다음과 같은 역할을 하여야 한다고 생각한다.

첫 번째는 조달청이 선도하여 건설시장에 BIM 확대 메시지를 주어야 한다. 국내 설계사무소와 건설사들은 BIM을 적용하는 사업건수가 많지 않아 BIM 인프라 구축에 대한 투자를 망설이고 있다. 따라서 조달청이 맞춤형서비스 사업에 BIM 적용을 확대함으로써 건설시장의 BIM에 대한 투자를 유인하고, 이로 인하여 다른 공공기관 및 민간의 BIM 적용 촉진을 유도해야 한다.

두 번째는 국내 BIM 설계의 지침이 되는 ‘시설사업 BIM 적용 기본지침서’의 지속적인 개선이다. 조달청은 2010년 공공기관 최초로 기본지침을 제정하였고, 본 지침이 국내 BIM 시장을 선도해왔다. 현재 3차례의 개선으로 계획설계부터 시공단계까지 BIM 데이터 작성 기준 및 활용기준을 제시하여 국내 BIM 발주사업의 표준이 되고 있다. 하지만 구조해석, 공정관리, 견적 및 유지관리 분야는 지침에서 구체적 방안이 제시되지 않아 설계사무소와 건설사의 활용성이 떨어지고 있는 실정이다. 따라서 본 지침의 지속적인 개선 작업을 통하여 향후 3차원 BIM 설계를 넘어 4D(공정관리), 5D(견적) 및 유지관리에 대한 구체적 방안을 제시해야 할 것이다.

세 번째는 BIM을 적용하는 목적의 명확한 정립이다. 현재까지 조달청은 기본지침서 만으로 시설공사 설계용역을 발주하고 있다. 이로 인해 BIM이 갖추어야 할 최소한의 목적을 달성했고, 적정한 품질 확보도 가능했다. 하지만 개별 사업의 특수성을 고려하지 아니하고 포괄적으로 BIM을 적용해 왔다. 따라서 조달청과 수요기관은 협의를 통해 각 사업 특성에 부합하는 명확한 BIM 적용 목적을 제시할 필요가 있다. 예를 들어 2000억 원 이상 대형공사는 BIM 적용 기본목적에 더하여 유지관리비용 절감을 위해 에너지 분석 및 완공된 시설물의(As-Built) BIM 모델 작성 등을 요구하고, 300억 원 미만 중소형공사는 디자인 검토 및 간섭확인 등 최소화된 BIM 적용을 요구하는 방안을 고려할 수 있다.

최근 BIM 성과분석 사례를 보면, 프로야구 두산베어스의 2군 경기장 ‘이천 베어스파크 공사’에서 약 1억 1000만 원의 BIM 비용을 투입하여 약 21억 원의 공사비 절감을 달성했다. BIM을 적용함으로써 설계오류의 사전 차단이 가능하여 재시공이 감소하였고, 그 결과 49일의 공기가 단축되었기 때문이다. 이 사례는 BIM이 건설 생산성 향상에 크게 기여하는 것을 보여준다.

BIM 적용의 근본적인 목적은 건설 생산성 향상이다. 서두에도 밝혔듯이 건설산업의 노동 생산성이 비농업 산업보다 크게 뒤떨어지고 있는 현실에서, 조달청이 BIM 적용을 확대함으로써 건설시장의 BIM 도입이 촉진되고, 이는 건설산업의 문제점 극복과 건설 생산성 향상에 크게 기여할 것으로 전망된다.

2015.09.18 김익수 조달청 시설사업기획과장

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